What are the most common tests done in a Pathology or Histology Laboratory?

August 29, 2022by Kalstein

The different tests that are carried out in popular anatomy laboratories are carried out to study the cause, evolution and consequences of numerous diseases, analyzing the cells of tissues and tumors of the body. It therefore has an important diagnostic and prognostic value.

It should be noted that it is a fundamental tool of forensic medicine, which studies anatomical alterations or modifications that appear in organs and tissues as a result of a disease.

Identification of Pathological Laboratory Tests

The effectiveness of medical care is closely matched by accurate, rapid and effective analyzes. To achieve the formations allow, more and more, in the pathological anatomy, for the characterization of various diseases, among them, the most varied, are the studies to know the type of cancer. As well as cardiology or anesthesia. In this sense, the diagnosis of these diseases is made through macroscopic and microscopic examinations, performed in cell and tissue samples.

The most common tests performed in pathology laboratories are: Papanicolaou, thyroid puncture and analysis of cancer cells, which are performed from a piece of tissue, when biopsy is needed.

Procedures for Pathological or Histological Tests

Firstly, the due process of study is fulfilled through certain important stages, which begins through sampling, through a biopsy, aspiration, puncture or surgery.

Next, tissue storage is performed with formalin to preserve the material, prior to analysis, where they are processed and treated in the most appropriate way for each type of material.

Finally, tests are done to define the diagnosis, which may involve cuts, tissue coloring, gross and microscopic examination; and only then is the medical report issued.

Tissue Processor for Histological Testing

The main objective for the performance of the histological tests, refers to the study of the tissues that make up the samples, in which it allows to observe the cellular and tissue microstructure: the microscopy and the histological technique.

Accordingly, the procedures for sample preparation are filtered with paraffin to obtain the proper consistency and later get the units with the samples or specimens. Once these units are held, they are cut into a piece of equipment called a microtome, to obtain fine-thin samples, allowing cell and tissue structures to be observed. A step further that offers the most detailed information, corresponds to the time of applying the stain, which gives colors to the sample and allows to identify various structures, by observing these preparations with the light field microscope.

Therefore, it is worth mentioning some important concepts related to obtaining the samples:

  • Biopsy. The sample is obtained from a living individual.
  • Necropsy. The sample is taken from a corpse.
  • Incisional biopsy. A section of the lesion is obtained.
  • Excisional biopsy. The entire lesion is removed.

Once the sample to be tested has been acquired, the crucial next step must be taken immediately: fixation.

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