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What kinds of spectrophotometers exists?

It is an apparatus of continuous use in laboratories, this allows to carry out an analysis of the beam of electromagnetic radiation or light that is absorbed when passing through a solution, strengthening the science of spectrophotometry, in addition it has the ability to measure the magnitude of waves and the relationship of these with the values of the photometric, it also quantifies the microorganisms and substances in the laboratories of chemical research.ย 

The importance of this equipment lies in its use, and areas of application, of these aspects depends on the type of spectrophotometer required by your laboratory, according to the different manufacturers we can find different models and classification, however, this device, determines, identifies, qualifies and quantifies light and its energy; it commonly allows to know the concentration of substances in a solution and to carry out an analysis under the quantitative approach, in order to diagnose the properties of light and the interaction with chemicals.ย 

Types of Spectrophotometer

There are a large number of spectrophotometers, classified in different ways, but the following types stand out:

  • According to its beam of light: in turn these are classified in:ย 
  1. Single beam spectrophotometer: The light is transported from the sample to the detector, so a reference is needed to develop the analysis.ย 
  2. Split beam spectrophotometer: The light is divided into two paths, the one that passes through the monochromator to the sample and then to the detector, and the one that passes into the detector that is used to correct variations of the light that the lamp emits.
  3. Double beam spectrophotometer: Light through two paths to the compartments, and each has its own detector. One goes to the sample and the other to the reference.
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer: it works by taking into account the wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation spectrometer and by relying on the fact that the molecules that absorb the frequencies are part of the characteristics of its structure; are used for the study of pigments in paints and manuscripts, its most important application is in the food industry, since it allows knowing the concentration of compounds of various products.
  • Visible UV Spectrophotometer: they are used to measure light passing through the sample, and the analysis is to compare that intensity before it passes through the solution or sample, this relationship is called transmittance and is written in percentage.
  • Scanning spectrophotometers: Light is dispersed at wavelengths and measures the individual transmittance of each wavelength through the bucket, resulting in the spectrum continuously, producing a decrease in the accuracy and reproducibility of wavelength selection.
  • Matrix spectrophotometers: The light is directed to a detector, which allows the simultaneous measurement of all wavelengths, and the measurement is faster and more reliable.

Categories of spectrophotometers

There are not only types of spectrophotometers, depending on their usefulness and functionality, but presentation or design models:ย 

  • Portable spectrophotometers: Solid, precise and comfortable in the hand or pocket, portable devices measure color anywhere in your operation.ย ย 
  • Table spectrophotometers: are those required for operations where a high level of precision and color control is required in a laboratory.ย 

How a Spectrophotometer works

It is based on the light of a special lamp that has the spectrophotometer and is guided by a connector that selects and separates the light from the wavelength, which will pass through the sample; the intensity of the light emitted by the sample is captured and then compared with the intensity of the light that affected the sample, with this information the transmittance is calculated, which depends on the concentration of the substance.

In conclusion, this instrument bases its operation on trying to illuminate a sample with white light, in order to calculate the amount of light that is reflected through a series of wavelength intervals; this apparatus has the ability to determine which substance is present in a sample and how much its wavelength calculation is.

Spectrophotometer applications

Applications of this equipment are carried out in areas where quantitative analysis is required, such as in the areas of: biochemistry, physics, biology, materials and chemical engineering, clinical, industrial, and any area that works with chemicals, in addition in hospitals are used to examine the tissues or blood of a diagnosis; they are also used in the laser, optical or printing industry to measure the transmittance or reflectance of solid substances such as polished glass.

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